Workstation Crane

Workstation Cranes are a proven way to improve productivity, increase quality, and provide a safer work environment. Both the aluminum and steel Gorbel Workstation Crane Systems utilize the enclosed track that is high in strength and low in weight. With the ability to span up to 30 ft.

Workstation Crane
Workstation Crane

Workstation bridge crane

What are Workstation Bridge Cranes and Monorails?

Bridge cranes cover rectangular work areas, while monorail systems can be used to move loads along a linear path, cover various work area shapes, or to link work areas together. Work station bridge cranes and monorails can be used individually or can be readily adapted for more sophisticated applications by the addition of extra monorail tracks, curves, and transfers that can be easily configured into a total system.

Workstation Crane
Work station Crane

Workstation jib crane

Workstation Jib Cranes offers easy, ergonomic lifting and transfer of repetitive loads. These small, nimble cranes are faster than motorized jibs and are very affordable. The workstation jibs can be permanently foundation-mounted, portable with counterweight bases, wall-mounted, or foundationless to best suit your needs:

  • Freestanding Workstation Jib Cranes
    • 360-degree rotation
    • Standard crane heights to 12 feet (floor to bottom of the boom); taller designs available
    • Mounting plates attach with anchor bolts to a standard 6-inch reinforced concrete floor, or to new foundations for special load conditions
    • Smaller capacity cranes use square mounting plates with welded gussets connected to the mast; each plate uses four anchor bolts
    • Larger capacity cranes use hexagonal mounting plates with welded gussets connected to the mast; each plate uses 6 anchor bolts
Workstation Crane
Work station Crane

What is a jib crane?

A type of crane, which has a horizontal member (known as jib or boom) that supports a moveable hoist fixed to a wall or to a floor-mounted pillar is known as jib crane.

Used mostly in industrial premises and on military vehicles, the jib may swing through an arc, giving additional lateral movement. It can be also fixed. The jib cranes can be also fitted on top floors of warehouse buildings to help lift goods to all floors from the ground to the top. The jib is an operating arm that extends horizontally from the crane.

The jib on a jib crane is a tilted strut that supports a fixed pulley block. Cables wrapped multiple times round the fixed block and round another block are attached to the load. The free end of the cable is pulled (manually or using a winding machine), the pulley system delivers a force to the load equal to the applied force multiplied by the number of lengths of cable passing between the two blocks. This number is known as the mechanical advantage.

Workstation crane systems

Why Work station Cranes?

Work Station Cranes are a proven way to improve productivity, increase quality, and provide a safer work environment. Both the aluminum and steel Gorbel Workstation Crane Systems utilize the enclosed track that is high in strength and low in weight.

With the ability to span up to 30 ft. and lift capacities between 150 and 4000 lbs., line of ergonomic crane products guarantees increased productivity.

Depending on your needs, has the workstation cranes that are sure to handle any project. Have a need for some type of customized material handling solution?

Workstation Crane
Work station Crane

Free Standing Jib crane

The workstation crane system improves productivity, increases quality, and provide a safer work environment. The workstation crane systems including workstation bridge crane system and freestanding workstation crane, etc. A custom workstation crane system is available for you now. With a workstation Crane, material handling problems of your workstation can be handled easily.

What is a workstation crane system?

Workstation cranes are used to help workers perform tasks with higher efficiency and less risk of injury. Workstation cranes enable workers to move objects or loads by pushing the load with the assistance of the vertical lifting device, such as a hoist, or other attachment. Primarily, workstation cranes can be classified into workstation Jib Crane, bridge crane, and Gantry Crane, etc.

The workstation crane system is very useful in improving productivity, increasing quality and provide a safer work environment. A lot of people use the workstation crane system to effectively solve the problem of handling their material and improving the performance of their business.

Workstation Crane
Work station Crane

Workstation crane and tradition crane

Comparison of workstation crane and tradition crane:

Workstation cranes can help workers to be more productive than the traditional cranes. A study conducted conveys that workstation crane increases productivity up to 28 percent compared to the traditional cranes. The workstation crane increases in productivity are possible because the workstation crane requires less effort to move than the traditional cranes

Features of the workstation crane system:

  • The workstation offers long spans for our workstation cranes. The enclosed track extends far, allowing us to offer the full coverage necessary for production and assembly lines.
  • The workstation cranes with standard profile sizes and bolt-on connections can be installed quickly
  • If your business depends on workers making repetitive movements or lifting heavy loads, and a workstation crane system can be a fast and easy way to improve productivity.
  • steel workstation crane system is available for hazardous environments.
Workstation Crane
Work station Crane

Work station crane

What type of crane to choose for your application?

According to the features of each type of cranes, select the most appropriate one for your application:

  • The workstation bridge crane covers a rectangular area while the coverage area of the jib crane is circular.
  • The workstation bridge cranes can be floor supported or hung from the ceiling. Jib cranes can be wall or pillar mounted.
  • An enclosed track workstation bridge crane provides consistent ease of operation over the full range of movement.
  • Jib cranes can move more easily at the very end of the boom and have more difficult to move as the load approaches the pivot point.

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Overhead Crane Cable

Imagine the following situation: An inspector has examined the hoist rope and he has found 10,000 wire breaks. He insists that the rope is still in good working condition. Could this be true?

Overhead Crane Design

Overhead Crane Design: Frequently used in industrial environments, overhead bridge cranes offer reliable stability and efficiency for managing loads or various capacities in loads of various capacities capable of lifting extremely heavy loads.

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Overhead Crane Cable

Overhead Crane Cable: Imagine the following situation: An inspector has examined the hoist rope and he has found 10,000 wire breaks. He insists that the rope is still in good working condition. Could this be true?

Before wire ropes were invented in 1834, chains were the most common lifting means. They have, however, one inherent disadvantage: Chains are linear arrangements of load-bearing elements. If only one chain link fails, the whole system will fail.

Overhead Crane Cable
Overhead Crane Cable

Crane wire rope specification

Steel wire ropes, Overhead Crane Cable, on the other hand, are parallel arrangements of load-bearing elements. If one rope element fails, the breaking strength of the wire rope is reduced only locally, and usually by less than 1%.

Wire ropes are multiple redundant systems of load-bearing elements. In a redundant system, every element which is necessary for the proper functioning of the system exists at least twice. For example, some of the parts of our human body are redundant: If we lose sight in one eye, we can still see. And if we lose the hearing in one ear, we can still hear. If in a wire rope one wire fails, there are still about 250 other wires to carry the load.

But what will happen if during the service life of the rope more and more of these wires fail? If we have lost the sight in both eyes, we can no longer see. And if we have lost the hearing in both ears, we can no longer hear. Therefore, should not also the wire rope fail if every single one of its 250 wires is broken?

No. It sounds incredible, but a wire rope can still be in good condition even if every single one of its wires is broken 200 times!

Overhead Crane Cable
Overhead Crane Cable

Wire rope hoist crane

The figure shows a schematic arrangement of the 250 wires making up a wire rope (for space reasons, only 30 wires are displayed). Along the rope length, every single one of the 250 wires is broken once. Each wire break, however, merely represents a local reduction of the rope’s breaking strength. A few millimeters away from the location of the break the broken wire will again bear its full share of the load.

Overhead Crane Cable:

If we have a very uniform distribution of the wire breaks along the rope length so that in every short piece of rope only one wire break can be found, the breaking strength of every single one of these sections is weakened by less than one percent only. In a pull test, this wire rope might achieve its full catalog breaking strength even though every single one of its elements is broken! Still, there must be rules about how many broken wires per rope unit length that can be tolerated.

The discard number of wire breaks is defined in the applicable national or international standards and in the rules of the classification societies as a permissible number of wire breaks per multiple of the wire rope diameter, e.g. per 6 x rope diameter (one rope lay length) or per 30 x rope diameter (5 rope lay lengths). Our inspector has found 10,000 wire breaks, but the discard number was not reached in any single rope section of a length of 6 x d or 30 x d. So he was perfectly right in his decision to keep the rope in service. This example shows that under normal conditions a wire rope is a very safe and reliable machine element.

Overhead Crane Cable
Overhead Crane Cable

Installing wire rope on crane

Choosing a crane wire rope: Overhead Crane Cable

Items to be taken into account when choosing a wire rope:

Breaking strength

The workload that the wire rope is to be subjected to is the first item to be taken into account when choosing a wire rope. Depending on the workload and the safety factor we wish to apply, we will have the wire rope breaking strength.

Corrosion resistance

If the wire rope is to be used in corrosive environments, a wire rope with galvanized wires should be used. If there is any risk of moisture entering the wire rope, a plastic-coated core wire rope can be an option.

Twisting torque and rotation

We have to take into account that when a wire rope is bearing a load, it causes the following effects:

  • When the two ends of a wire rope are fixed, the force applied causes twisting at the fixed points.
  • When one of the ends of the wire rope is free and a load is attached, the wire rope tends to rotate.

The wire rope’s tendency to rotate increases with the load that it is bearing and the height. The degree to which the wire rope generates twisting torque depends on its construction. Non-rotation wire ropes have each layer of strands in a differing direction of lay to the previous one, which means that the twisting torque of each layer is compensated by the twisting torque of the next layer. For this reason, we call wire ropes with three layers of strands Non-Rotation, whereas we call wire ropes with two layers of strands ROTATION RESISTANT.

Fatigue resistance

Wire ropes deteriorate due to the bending fatigue they are subjected to when bearing a load and flexing on the sheaves and drums. The level of deterioration is determined by the number of sheaves, sheave´s diameters, drum diameter and the diameter of the strands in the wire rope. If there is high bending fatigue, a wire rope with small diameter outer strands or a compacted finish should be chosen.

Abrasion resistance

Abrasion takes place between the wire rope and the sheaves and drums. To prevent it, a wire rope with a high outer strand diameter should be used.

Crushing strength

In multi-layer winding applications, the wire rope should be installed with a tension of between 2% and 10% of the breaking strength in order to avoid crushing between layers and deterioration of the wire rope. Compacted wire ropes are recommended for multilayer winding. Always use wire ropes with a metal core and high filling factor.

Swivels

Swivel use is only recommended when using non-rotation wire ropes and the load might rotate in high lifting operations.

Hoist cable trolley

What is the requirements to overhead crane cable?

The use of suspension overhead crane (or crane cable guide), should prevent the crane cable in the movement was worn and over bending.

For crane cable diameter greater than 8mm, the crane cable hanging curved plate diameter should be at least the crane cable diameter For the outer diameter of more than 8mm of the crane cable, at least 8 times the outer diameter; for the diameter of more than 12.5mm crane cable, at least 10 times the outer diameter; for flat crane cable, the crane cable thickness is equivalent to the diameter of the round crane cable.

Overhead Crane cable arrangement should ensure that the crane cable length is equal, the pressure plate crimps firmly, the same layer of crane cable diameter as close as possible to avoid a root or a few crane cables too much force. Suspension crane cable trolley should be set between each other to pull the wire rope, the operation, when the adjacent two hanging crane cable trolley spacing between the crane cable so that the angle between the 120 °, the traction wire rope should be completely straightened force.

Overhead Crane Cable
Overhead Crane Cable

Crane pendant wire rope

The use of crane cable reel power supply should be prevented during the movement of the crane cable was worn, the diameter of not more than 21.5mm crane cable, crane cable drum diameter should be at least 10 times the crane cable diameter; for the diameter of more than 21.5mm crane cable, The crane cable drum diameter should be at least 12.5 times the crane cable diameter.

The crane cable reel shall be capable of automatically winding the crane cable.

The drive torque of the crane cable reel shall be not less than the maximum winding torque required for the winding crane cable. In the process of crane cable laying, the traction force acting on the crane cable conductor should be as small as possible. For crane cables with no reinforcement core, the maximum allowable tension on the copper conductor cross-section is 20N / mm2. For crane cable winding speed or crane cable weight Heavier, should be added to withstand the required traction to strengthen the wire rope for the core.

Overhead Crane Cable
Overhead Crane Cable

what type of wire rope is used on cranes?

What are crane cables made of?

Steel wires for wire ropes are normally made of non-alloy carbon steel with a carbon content of 0.4 to 0.95%. The very high strength of the rope wires enables wire ropes to support large tensile forces and to run over sheaves with relatively small diameters.

What is Strand in wire rope?

Cable construction is the combination and arrangement of wires in a rope. Many individual steel wires are helically-laid together to form a wire rope. A strand is when two or more wires are wound concentrically in a helix. These strands are typically wound around a center wire and then around the core.

What is the difference between cable and wire rope?

The term cable is often used interchangeably with wire rope. However, in general, wire rope refers to diameters larger than 3/8 inch. Sizes smaller than this are designated as cable or cords. Two or more wires concentrically laid around a center wire is called a strand.

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Overhead Crane Parts

Overhead Crane Parts: components, parts, technical specifications, maintenance of traveling industrial cranes, aircraft, hoists, winches, etc.

Overhead Crane Design

Overhead Crane Design: Frequently used in industrial environments, overhead bridge cranes offer reliable stability and efficiency for managing loads or various capacities in loads of various capacities capable of lifting extremely heavy loads.

The most read

Overhead Crane Lights

Overhead Crane Lights: The crane spotlights are for companies that have fixed overhead cranes. It is the only light of its kind in the industry. Cranes operate in close proximity to people and in-plant vehicles and can pose a real danger to them if they get too close or if they are unaware of the crane’s presence.

Overhead Crane Lights:

Have you ever walked through a facility when suddenly a maintenance cart approached from behind without you being aware of it?
Have you ever stepped around a blind corner and been startled by a piece of mobile equipment moving toward you?

Overhead Crane Lights
Overhead Crane Lights

Crane warning light

Everyone is busy these days, often multi-tasking and being in a hurry, which can distract an employee from serious hazards such as mobile equipment traffic.

Audible alarms are great but often serve as a general warning of equipment in the area.

Overhead Crane Lights:

If you also consider how loud a steel mill can be, along with the continuous use of mobile equipment or overhead crane sirens throughout a workday, you can understand how workers may become immune to these audible alarms.

To increase pedestrians’ awareness of mobile equipment movement, warning spotlights are being manufactured that will broadcast a spot on the floor 15 to 20 feet from the equipment to forewarn pedestrians of their approach.

In these years, began installing blue spotlights on an overhead crane and other mobile equipment operating within the mill to increase pedestrian awareness.

The lights do not take the place of audible alarms, but they provide an additional visual warning that is very direct with respect to the proximity of the hazard.

Overhead Crane Lights
Overhead Crane Lights

Overhead crane warning lights

Overhead Crane Lights: The front light is continuously on when the overhead crane is running, and the rear light is wired to activate when the equipment is placed in reverse. Recognizing the increased safety awareness and potential market, manufacturers are now creating various lights that can project a line on the floor to warn pedestrians of the danger area surrounding mobile equipment (i.e., forklifts, rotating equipment).

The positive employee feedback regarding the awareness of mobile equipment via the blue lights recently installed made us wonder if such a concept could be implemented on all overhead cranes.

Overhead crane audible alarm

Although a well-known rule of looking up and locating cranes while walking through a steel mill exists, an employee-focused on a task or deep in thought may not be aware of the overhead crane siren.

The audible alarm serves more as a general caution to employees in the area but requires employees to identify the hazard and assess if its proximity is in their immediate danger zone or not.

The movement of light from an overhead crane will provide an actual and definitive warning to affected employees, those in the immediate area.

Also, unlike audible warning sirens, which are dependent on the crane operator to activate, the spotlights are automatically on when the equipment is energized, thus reducing human error.

Overhead Crane Lights
Overhead Crane Lights

Overhead crane safety warning light

Unlike the blue lights on forklifts where the beam is projected 15 feet, producing a consistent and visible blue spot on the ground, It should be recognized that the variable heights of overhead cranes may be more difficult to find the right LED light to produce a large, bright spot on the floor.

The options for overhead crane warning lights were investigated and it was discovered that this concept is still quite new, but manufacturers are designing and developing LED lights to be used in overhead cranes to warn pedestrians about the movement of the crane.

Overhead Crane Lights
Overhead Crane Lights

LED overhead crane lights

Overhead Crane Lights: The first LED lights trialed on overhead cranes were those used on mobile equipment — the 4 LED blue spotlight. The blue spotlight was installed on the bridge of an overhead crane at 65 feet and it created a 6-foot x 6-foot blue spot on the floor.

After installing the blue light on the crane we realized it would be best for the lights on overhead cranes to be different than the color of the lights used on the mobile equipment so that workers could distinguish between the two.

The only other color available in a focused beam spotlight was red. We purchased a red 4 LED spotlight from the same manufacturer as the mobile equipment light we already found success with and installed it on the same overhead crane at 65 feet.

Overhead Crane Lights
Overhead Crane Lights

Overhead crane safety lights

The crane’s area of operation was well-lit, with halogen lights and natural sunlight coming from overhead doors. However, this particular red light produced a soft red color spot, which was more difficult to see on the floor and tended to fade when exposed to full natural sunlight.

To overcome the height of our taller cranes (100 feet plus) and produce a stronger spotlight on the ground, we purchased red and blue 24 LED lights designed to be used on overhead cranes as warning lights.

These lights performed well from 100 feet, producing a bright 7-foot x 7-foot spot on the ground, but again, there was some fading of both the blue and red colors in areas illuminated by natural sunlight. ( Overhead Crane Lights )

Overhead Crane Lights
Overhead Crane Lights

Light duty overhead crane

After trialing a green light on a crane, we received quick feedback from our employees that they felt visibility was greater with the red light versus the green light. Considering the performance of the different colored lights and our employees’ feedback, It has been decided that the red light is better for the needs of industrial facilities.

Each installation interested in this technology, has to experiment with different types of colored lights in its facilities, to determine which light is best for your needs.

The overhead crane lights have been a positive complement to the audible warning siren. Should employees become distracted or complacent to the audible warnings of overhead cranes, a moving light on the floor will grab their attention and prevent them from unknowingly walking under a suspended load.

The lights will be angled out from the bridge of a crane to warn workers of an approaching crane, with adjustable distances selected based on the area.

Overhead Crane Lights
Overhead Crane Lights

Overhead crane warning systems

Another option we may consider is installing lights on the trolley projecting straight down from the four corners of the trolley, thus creating a danger zone around a suspended load. Installing the lights on the trolley can also be beneficial to crane operators while they are picking up or setting a load down, as they do not have to take their eyes off the crane block or load to know the trolley is centered over the load.

Your effort to provide more awareness about the movement of the overhead crane will result in fewer opportunities for employees to be in the wrong place at the wrong time, minimizing the potential of an avoidable accident. ( Overhead Crane Lights )

Overhead Crane Lights
Overhead Crane Lights

How do security lights work in cranes?

Overhead warning lights also make positioning the crane hook and moving objects easier for crane operators, who can use the light as a point of reference for their hook position. Install the lens cover to switch the light beam from a dot to a line. Mounting brackets are adjustable so placement of the warning light is simple and easy. This single overhead warning light projects one dot or line.

Overhead Crane Lights

How does the overhead crane lights work?

Lights ensure the safety of pedestrians by projecting safety lines on the floor. Those lines (displayed in a chosen color) inform all employees nearby about the moving load. When used by the crane operator they help the operator position the crane precisely.

How are the overhead crane lights installed?

The installation process of all lamps is equally straightforward. All you need to do is mount the lamp directly on the crane. The included adjustable mounting bracket up and down, making it easy to position the lamp precisely where you want it.

Why You Should Use Safety Lights?

Discover their main benefits:
-Versatility: the lamp is available in two colors (red, blue) and can be used both indoor and outdoor. Thanks to that it’s easy to adjust it to your company requirements.
-Convenience: the use of lamps makes the work of crane operators much easier and safer and provides them higher control over the load.
-Efficiency: the lamp is an ideal solution especially for crowded areas in any workplace, increasing the safety of your employees around cranes and loading areas.

How does the warning light work on an overhead crane?

Project lines or points of light from an elevator on the floor to help prevent injuries to workers caused by crane hooks and suspended loads. Each light has 24 LEDs that emit a light beam on the floor to warn that there is an aerial crane hook in the area.

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Overhead Crane Design

Overhead Crane Design: Frequently used in industrial environments, overhead bridge cranes offer reliable stability and efficiency for managing loads or various capacities in loads of various capacities capable of lifting extremely heavy loads.

Overhead Crane Parts

Overhead Crane Parts: components, parts, technical specifications, maintenance of traveling industrial cranes, aircraft, hoists, winches, etc.

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Overhead Crane Types

Overhead Crane Types: Overhead travelling cranes, designed for handling loads up to 120 tonnes, are the ideal solution for heavy lifting and wide spans. The overhead travelling crane range includes four series designed for different applications and operating conditions: single girder, double girder, underslung and single girder wall travelling cranes.

Overhead Crane Types
Overhead Crane Types

Electric overhead travelling crane

EOT crane types:

Overhead crane types: Material handling is a vital component of any manufacturing system and the material handling industry is consequently active, dynamic, and competitive.

A crane is a mechanical lifting device equipped with a rope drum, wire rope, and sheaves that are used both to lift and lower materials and to move them horizontally.

It uses simple machines to create mechanical advantage which helps to move loads beyond the normal capability of a human. Cranes are commonly used in the transport industry, in the construction industry, and in the manufacturing industry.

The overhead cranes handle and transfer heavy loads from one position to another. Electric overhead traveling cranes are widely used in many industries for lifting the safe working load.

The escalating price of structural material is a global problem. Many small scale industries purchase the existing electric overhead cranes from bigger industries and make the required modification to suit their requirement.

Overhead Crane Types
Overhead Crane Types

Overhead crane types

Overhead crane types:

Various types of overhead cranes are used in industries with many being highly specialized. Various types of overhead cranes are single girder cranes, double girder cranes, gantry cranes, and monorails.

Single Girder Crane

The crane consists of a single bridge girder supported on two end trucks. It has a trolley hoist mechanism that runs on the bottom flange of the bridge girder.

Double Girder Crane

The crane consists of two bridge girders supported on two end trucks (end carriages). The trolley runs on rails on the top of the bridge girders. Double girder electric overhead cranes are widely used in the industries because they can carry more loads with more span than any other type of crane. In this project, we are concentrating mainly on double girder electric overhead cranes.

Overhead crane types
Overhead crane types

Gantry Cranes

These cranes are essentially the same as the regular overhead cranes except that the bridge for carrying the trollies or trolleys is rigidly supported on two or more legs running on fixed rails or other runways. These “legs” eliminate the supporting runway and column system and connect to end trucks which run on a rail either embedded in or laid on top of, the floor.

Monorail cranes

For some applications such as production assembly lines or service lines, only a trolley hoist is required. The hoisting mechanism is similar to a single girder crane with a difference that the crane doesn’t have a movable bridge and the hoisting trolley runs on a fixed girder. Monorailbeams are usually I-beams (tapered beam flanges).

Monorail or repair trolley cranes are used for maintenance purpose.

For maintenance of any single or double girder crane, the crane which is to be taken for maintenance is brought under the repaired trolley (monorail) crane so that it can lift the components of the crane for repair or replacement.

EOT Crane

The EOT in EOT Cranes stands for “Electric Overhead Travelling”. These types of overhead cranes are stationary and allow for lateral movement across two planes. Not only do they move backward and forwards but they can also move up and down with the load. These cranes are perfect for indoor work.

Factories, assembly lines, big warehouses, mining corporations, etc. can make good use of EOT cranes. Low maintenance and easy to operate make these cranes a good investment, especially if you have trained operators and experience the frequent need for heavy load lifting. The only thing to keep in mind is that they are not to be used in explosive and corrosive environments.

HOT Crane

Here, the HOT in HOT Cranes stands for Hoist One Track. HOTs are a stationary overhead crane and allow for lateral movement across two planes as well. They are less common as compared to EOT cranes as they do not allow for as much movement as the EOT cranes.

They are more commonly used for maintenance purposes. They have a hoist attached to the bridge which can be operated using an electric pendant. They are low maintenance and a sound investment if you frequently need a lot of maintenance and repair in your enterprise.

Bridge Cranes

Overhead bridge cranes are the most common models on the market. A bridge crane has two overhead runway beams that are linked to the support structure of the building. This crane comes in two configurations; single and double girder. The strength of a double and single girder bridge crane is almost the same. However, a double girder allows you to hoist a load higher than a single girder crane. Because a single girder is simpler, it is easier to install and cheaper than a double girder.

Gantry Cranes

In a gantry crane, the girder stands on legs as opposed to being suspended on a support beam. The legs can be fitted underground or on the surface. Gantry cranes are suitable for outdoor use because they don’t require the girder to connect to a building’s support structure. If you need a crane in a shipyard, a gantry is the right kind of system.

Workstation cranes

A workstation crane is built for lightweight use in areas with space constraints. It’s a simple design that can lift between 150 pounds to 2 tons of material. Workstation overhead cranes are perfect for repetitive duties like moving packaged boxes in a warehouse. They are ergonomically-designed for regular use. (Overhead Crane Types)

Overhead crane types
Overhead crane types

Types of overhead cranes

Overhead crane types: Top running vs. under running cranes

When it comes to defining clear differences between bridge cranes, you will want to consider if you require a top running or under the running crane.

On a top running crane, the bridge runs on rails along the top of the runway beams.

On an under running, or underhung crane, the bridges are supported by the bottom of the runway beams and the wheels run along the bottom of the lower beam flange. (overhead crane types)

Overhead Crane Types
overhead crane types

Top Running Crane

These cranes have no limiting capacity, meaning they can be built to go from small capacities to very large capacities. They include a rail installed on top of each runway, and the bridge wheels move on the rail instead of the bottom flange of the runway beam. These cranes are supported by the building structure or runway support columns, or sister columns, and are ideal for moving extremely heavy loads.

Under Running Crane

Often called “underhung,” because the crane wheels are supported by the bottom flange of the crane runway beams acting as the crane rail. These types of cranes can allow you to maximize your facility’s floor space for the production and storage of material because they are supported by the ceiling trusses or the roof structure. Or, they can be designed to utilize an existing support structure (if adequate), or run on a newly-engineered support structure.

Electric overhead traveling crane

Overhead crane types: Electric overhead crane comparison:

  • Based on Safe Working Load: Double girder cranes can lift the loads up to 500Tcapacity. Single girder cranes are suitable for the low safe working load. Because of extra girder in double girder cranes load distributed in two girders and hence double girder cranes can carry safer working load than single girder cranes.
  • Based on Span: For a longer span, the double girder cranes are used whereas single girder cranes are useful for a smaller span.
  • Based on Application: Double girder cranes are efficient for intensive use. Because of the rigidity of the structure, they are used in extreme conditions like lifting the molten metals. Single girder cranes are used for irregular and light use. They are used in small workshops, storage areas, etc.
  • Based on Long Travel Speed: The single girder cranes are suitable for lower long travel speed whereas the double girder cranes can run with higher long travel speed.
  • Based on Cost: In general, the single girder cranes are less costly than the double girder cranes. Double girder cranes consist of more walkways, other accessories that add the cost. Single girder cranes cost less in many ways, only one cross girder is required, the trolley is simpler and installation is quicker.

Different types of overhead cranes

What is overhead crane?

To move extremely heavy or bulky loads through the overhead space in a facility, instead of through aisles or on the floor, an overhead crane (also called an industrial crane, crane, or overhead traveling crane is a machine that lifts, lowers and moves a load horizontally.

how does an overhead crane work?

Overhead Crane Working Principle system consists of three working movements: crane hook up and down lifting, trolley lateral movement and crane long traveling longitudinal motion.

What is the difference between a gantry crane and overhead crane?

A gantry crane is slightly different from a bridge crane. The general premise is the same, but the operation is different. Some gantry cranes ride along a track installed on the floor or use a V-groove caster to keep moving in a straight line. Gantry cranes are usually less expensive than an overhead bridge crane.

What is EOT crane?

EOT (Electronic overhead traveling) crane is essential industrial equipment involved in material handling job. Overhead EOT single girder cranes are used to lift the objects by a hoist fitted in a trolley. It comes under standard crane types.

How to operate overhead crane?

Overhead Travelling Cranes, Gantry Cranes, Jib Cranes, and Monorail Hoists are used widely for material handling. The safe operation of such cranes requires operators to have the knowledge and competence to avoid an accident. The purpose is to raise awareness of the hazards in lifting operations and to provide the basic knowledge in the safe operation of overhead travelling cranes, gantry cranes, jib cranes, and hoists.

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Overhead Crane Parts

Overhead Crane Parts: components, parts, technical specifications, maintenance of traveling industrial cranes, aircraft, hoists, winches, etc.

Overhead Crane Design

Overhead Crane Design: Frequently used in industrial environments, overhead bridge cranes offer reliable stability and efficiency for managing loads or various capacities in loads of various capacities capable of lifting extremely heavy loads.

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Overhead Crane Safety Training

Overhead Crane Safety Training: Overhead Travelling Cranes, Gantry Cranes, overhead crane, Jib Cranes, and Monorail Hoists are used widely for material handling. The safe operation of such cranes requires operators to have the knowledge and competence to avoid an accident.

The purpose of this guide is to raise awareness of the hazards in lifting operations and to provide the basic knowledge in the safe operation of overhead traveling cranes, gantry cranes, jib cranes, and hoists.

This guide is intended to be used by crane operators and supervisors to promote safe lifting operations in the handling of Overhead Travelling Cranes, Gantry Cranes, Jib Cranes, and Hoists.

Overhead Crane Safety

OSHA overhead crane

A person conducting a business or undertaking has the primary duty to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, workers and other people are not exposed to health and safety risks arising from the business or undertaking.

This duty requires the person to manage risks by eliminating health and safety risks so far as is reasonably practicable, and if it is not reasonably practicable to eliminate the risks, by minimizing those risks so far as is reasonably practicable. It also includes ensuring so far as is reasonably practicable the:

  • provision and maintenance of safe plant including cranes, and
  • safe use, handling, storage and transport of plant.

The Work Health and Safety (WHS) Regulations include specific duties for a person conducting a business or undertaking with management or control of the plant, powered mobile plant and plant that lifts or suspends loads.

If you own a crane you are the person with management or control of that plant.

If you hire or lease a crane, you have management or control of that plant for the period you have hired it. Both you and the person you have hired or leased it from will have duties to eliminate or minimize the risks associated with the plant, so far as is reasonably practicable.

Overhead Crane Safety Training
Crane Training – Course Summary

Overhead crane manufacturers

Designers, manufacturers, suppliers and importers

Designers, manufacturers, suppliers and importers of a plant must ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the plant they design, manufacture, import or supply is without risks to health and safety.

This duty includes carrying out analysis, testing or an examination and providing specific information about the plant. The information must, so far as is reasonably practicable, be passed on from the designer through to the manufacturer and supplier to the end-user.

Suppliers must provide a purchaser of a crane which requires plant design registration with the design registration number.

Officers, such as company directors, have a duty to exercise due diligence to ensure the business or undertaking complies with the WHS Act and Regulations. This includes taking reasonable steps to ensure the business or undertaking has and uses appropriate resources and processes to eliminate or minimize risks from a plant.

Workers and other people at the workplace must take reasonable care for their own health and safety, co-operate with reasonable policies, procedures and instructions and not adversely affect other people’s health and safety.

Overhead Crane Safety Training
Pier and bridge crane

Overhead crane risk assessment

risk assessment checklist

Find out what could cause harm. The following can help you identify potential hazards:

  1. Observe the workplace to identify areas where cranes operate and how they interact with other vehicles, pedestrians and fixed structures like overhead electric lines.
  2. Ask the crane operator, crane crew, and others about problems they encounter at the workplace including with operation, inspection, maintenance, repair, transport and storage requirements.
  3. Review your inspection, test and maintenance records e.g. logbooks, and incident and injury records including near misses.
Overhead crane risk assessment

Hazard assessment checklist

Assess the risk: In many cases, the risks and related control measures will be well known. In other cases, you may need to carry out a risk assessment to identify the likelihood of somebody being harmed by the hazard and how serious the harm could be. People who work with or near cranes are most at risk. Some of the risks when using a crane include:

  1. structural failure, overturning, or collapse of the crane
  2. contact or collision of the crane or its load with people or other plant and structures, and
  3. falling objects.

A risk assessment can help you determine what action you should take to control the risk and how urgently the action needs to be taken.

Risk management checklist

Take action to control the risk. The WHS laws require a business or undertaking do everything reasonably practicable to eliminate or minimise risks.

  1. The ways of controlling risks are ranked from the highest level of protection and reliability to the lowest.
  2. This ranking is known as the hierarchy of risk control. You must work through this hierarchy to manage risks.
  3. You need to consider possible control measures and make a decision about which are reasonably practicable for your workplace.
  4. Deciding what is reasonably practicable includes the availability and suitability of control measures, with a preference for using substitution, isolation or engineering controls to minimise risks before using administrative controls or personal protective equipment (PPE).
  5. Cost may also be relevant, but you can only consider this after an effective review of all reasonably practicable control measures.

The first thing to consider is whether crane-related hazards can be completely removed from the workplace. For example, designing items of size, shape and weight so they can be delivered, handled or assembled at the location where they will be used without the need for a crane.

Event risk management checklist

If it is not reasonably practicable to completely eliminate the risk then consider the following options in the order they appear below to minimize risks, so far as is reasonably practicable:

  1. substitute the hazard for something safer e.g. replace a crane operating cabin with a restricted field of vision with one that has a clear field of vision or use a remote control, for example, a pendant control.
  2. isolate the hazard from people e.g. use concrete barriers to create an exclusion zone to separate crane operations from workers and powered mobile plant, and
  3. use engineering controls e.g. enclosing the operator with a falling objects protective structure (FOPS) to minimize the risk of the operator being hit by a falling object.

If after implementing the above control measures a risk still remains, consider the following controls in the order below to minimize the remaining risk, so far as is reasonably practicable:

  • use administrative controls e.g. schedule crane operations to avoid or reduce the need for pedestrians and vehicles to interact with the crane in the area of operation, and
  • use PPE e.g. gloves, hard hats, high visibility vests, earplugs/muffs, and eye protection.

Check your control measures. Control measures need to be regularly reviewed to make sure they remain effective, taking into consideration changes, the nature, and duration of work and that the system is working as planned.

Overhead crane risk assessment

Occupational health and safety procedures

Who is involved?

You must consult your workers and their health and safety representatives if any when deciding how to manage the risks of using a crane in the workplace.

If there is more than one business or undertaking involved at your workplace you must consult them to find out who is doing what and work together so risks are eliminated or minimized so far as is reasonably practicable.

This may involve discussing site-specific requirements including the type of crane to use, operator training and traffic management.

Further information on consultation requirements is in the Code of Practice: Work health and safety consultation, co-operation and co-ordination.

Overhead crane safety checklist

Before using a crane

The person with management or control of plant at a workplace must ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the plant used is specifically designed to lift or suspend the load. A crane is one type of plant generally designed to especially lift and suspend loads.

The type of work you will be doing, how it will be done and who will be involved should be planned and discussed between the people involved in the work before deciding what type of crane will be used.

This includes people directly, for example, crane operators and other workers and indirectly, for example, suppliers, designers and crane hirers involved with the work.

Overhead crane risk assessment

Choosing a crane

Before you choose a crane you should discuss your workplace needs with suppliers and identify cranes most suited to the workplace and the work for which it will be used. Take into consideration the complete life cycle of the crane, how long you are likely to keep the crane, how often the crane is likely to be used, the conditions under which it will be used and the maximum loads the crane is likely to bear.

A second-hand crane is more likely to have out-dated or missing safety features. Suppliers of second-hand cranes must do what is reasonably practicable to supply equipment that is safe to use at work and where practicable, fit safety features.

Some of the things to look for when choosing a crane are:

  • safe access points e.g. ladders, footholds, steps and grabs rails
  • seat design e.g. comfort and back support
  • visibility e.g. mirror, window, and windscreen design, and
  • environmental controls e.g. temperature control units to avoid worker heat stress

Hiring a crane

Anyone hiring or leasing a crane to others has duties as both a supplier of the crane and as a person with management or control of the crane at the workplace. They must check the crane is safe to use and properly maintained and provide specific information with the crane including instructions on how to operate it safely.

Before you hire a crane you should check it is suitable for its intended use. You should also consider whether you need to hire a crane only or a crane with a trained and licensed crane crew.

If you do not have the knowledge or expertise about crane specifications, limitations, and operational requirements, you should talk to the crane supplier and provide relevant information about the work to be done, the workplace and the type of lifts to be completed so the supplier can provide a suitable crane.

Registering a crane

Some cranes must be registered before they can be used in the workplace. Cranes that are registrable plant must be design registered before they are supplied and used. Further information on registration requirements can be provided by the regulator.

More information on registrable plant including cranes is in the Code of Practice: Managing the risks of plant in the workplace.

Overhead crane inspection checklist

Inspection and pre-use safety checks. Inspecting and testing for cranes must include the:

  1. major inspection required for registrable mobile and tower cranes
  2. regular inspection and testing required for plant, and
  3. inspection and testing for plant item re-registration.

Further information on crane inspection and maintenance is in the Guide to inspecting and maintaining cranes.

Before a crane is used, tests, inspections, and specific adjustments must be undertaken to ensure the crane can be used safely. This includes:

  1. workplace factors including ground load-bearing capacity, wet or windy conditions are taken into account
  2. to confirm the crane will not adversely affect or be affected by other plant and structures in the area
  3. installation and commissioning activities are supervised by a competent person
  4. the components are assembled in the correct sequence using the right tools and equipment
  5. limit switches and load indication devices are functioning and correctly calibrated
  6. the crane has been installed and commissioned to the designer’s or manufacturer’s instructions and specified technical standards
  7. the crane is stable, and
  8. safe entry to and exit from the crane—including in an emergency

Emergency plan

An emergency plan must be prepared for each workplace where the crane will operate. The plan must be tested in the workplace and include emergency procedures like effective response and evacuation, notifying emergency services and medical treatment. Emergency procedure training must be provided to workers.

Contact numbers for emergency services should be easily seen or found. Workers should know what system is in place to contact emergency services and how to use it.

  • Rescue equipment should be available and easily accessible so an injured worker including the crane operator can be removed quickly.
  • Signs displaying evacuation locations should be placed where they are easily seen by workers and others at the workplace.
  • The emergency plan should also include how these procedures will apply to people who are near the crane as well as those people who are operating the crane (e.g. procedures for evacuating the workplace).

Crane setup procedure

Setting up and operating a crane: Documentation and markings.

Crane capacity chart

Load charts

A crane of variable radius, for example a tower or mobile crane, will have a crane-specific load chart (also known as a ‘rated capacity chart’) setting out how the crane lifting capacity varies depending on how the crane is set up i.e. how far the boom is extended and the angle of the boom. Using the load chart correctly is critical to ensure the crane is used safely.

Where the crane has one main load chart it should be fixed in the operator’s cabin in a place that is easy to see and read. Where the crane has more than one load chart, for example for different boom and fly jib configurations, the charts should be easily accessible for the operator to verify the crane will not be overloaded. The charts may be kept electronically or in hard copy.

The lifting capacity of a crane is generally limited by:

  • structural strength when the working radius is small
  • stability when the working radius is greater.

Structural limits

However, there are structural limits at both the minimum and maximum working radius. If a crane is overloaded, a structural or mechanical component of the crane may fail or the crane may overturn.

The lifting capacities specified on a load chart should not be exceeded except during testing of the crane by a competent person under controlled conditions. Each load chart should include enough information to identify the crane configuration it applies to. For example:

  • the safe working zone
  • the counterweight mass
  • whether a fly jib is fitted, in use, in place or stowed
  • outrigger extension or pick-and-carry mode
  • maximum speed for mobilizing a load
  • rope and reeving details, including the number of falls of rope in the hook block
  • main or auxiliary hoist in use, and
  • whether the hook block is included or excluded.

crane load chart

Some important factors which are often overlooked when reading load charts are:

  • Subtracting the mass of the hook block and lifting slings from the capacity of the crane at the particular radius. This should be noted on the load chart. For example, if the load chart states the crane can lift 20 tonnes at a given radius but the hook and lifting gear have a combined mass of 1 tonne, the load to be lifted cannot be more than 19 tonnes. This issue is critical for heavier hook blocks and lifting gear, for example, spreader beams.
  • Subtracting the mass of the fly jib (adjustment mass) from the capacity of the main hook when lifting from the main hook on the main boom with a fly jib attached to the boom head. This adjustment mass should be noted on the load chart—there may be two different masses for some cranes with a swing around fly jibs—one for the fly jib in place and another for the stowed position. Capacities of the main boom are generally based on the fly jib being removed. If this issue is ignored, the crane is likely to overturn.
  • The increased maximum working radius that may result when using a fly jib

Overhead crane operator

Limiting and indicating devices.

Limiting and indicating devices, for example, rated capacity limiters, the motion limiting devices, load indicators and radius indicators are intended to prevent a crane moving beyond its safe operating limits or to aid crane operators. The devices should not be relied on in place of using the crane’s load chart and operating instructions. Sole reliance on these devices, especially indicating devices, in place of safe operating practices may cause an incident.

Where limiting and indicating devices are to be installed on a crane the safety circuits of these devices should generally meet either:

  • a reliability level of Category 4 under AS 4024.1-2006: Safety of machinery
  • a safety integrity level (SIL) of 3 under AS 61508-2011: Functional safety of electrical/electronic/programmable electronic safety-related systems.

These categories of reliability level and SIL are related to the concept of ‘fail-safe’.

OSHA lockout Tagout

Freefall lock-out: When a crane is fitted with a free fall facility this function should be able to be positively locked out and not able to be unintentionally activated.

Is overhead crane training required OSHA?

Is overhead crane training required OSHA?

While OSHA standards do not spell out overhead crane training requirements, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers does get much more specific in the ASME B30.2 standard. It further states that a company’s management is responsible to “provide training to persons who will operate a crane”

What is a crane?

A crane is an item of a plant intended for raising or lowering a load and moving it horizontally including the supporting structure of the crane and its foundations. There is a range of ‘fixed’ (tower, bridge, gantry, portal boom, vessel-mounted) and ‘mobile’ (slewing, non-slewing, vehicle loading) cranes. A range of multi-purpose powered mobile plant including multi-purpose tool carriers and telescopic handlers may be classed as cranes in some operating configurations.

What are the hazards in crane lifting?

The three most common hazards involving overhead cranes include electrical hazards, overloading, and materials falling/slipping from overhead hoists.

Do you need a Licence to operate an overhead crane?

Under the act, all employers have a duty of care to their employees which includes:
To eliminate risks to health and safety so far as is reasonably practicable; and if it is not reasonably practicable to eliminate risks to health and safety, to reduce those risks so far as is reasonably practicable.

This requires an employer to so far as is reasonably practicable, provide and maintain for employees of the employer a working environment that is safe and without risks to health. This includes the provision of such information, instruction, training or supervision to employees of the employer as is necessary to enable those persons to perform their work in a way that is safe and without risks to health. The act also requires that a person must not carry out work, or an activity if the regulations require the work or activity to be carried out by a person who is registered or licensed.

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Overhead Crane Design

Overhead Crane Design: Frequently used in industrial environments, overhead bridge cranes offer reliable stability and efficiency for managing loads or various capacities in loads of various capacities capable of lifting extremely heavy loads.

Single Girder Overhead Monorail

Single girder overhead travelling crane. The single girder overhead travelling crane lifts safe working loads to 16,000 kg. The crane bridge girders are adapted individually to the ceiling construction

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